By Junji Ohtsubo
This 3rd version of “Semiconductor Lasers, balance, Instability and Chaos” was once considerably extended. within the prior variation, the dynamics and features of chaos in semiconductor lasers after the advent of the basic thought of laser chaos and chaotic dynamics brought about by means of self-optical suggestions and optical injection was once mentioned. Semiconductor lasers with new machine constructions, akin to vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are fascinating units from the perspective of chaotic dynamics seeing that they primarily contain chaotic dynamics even of their free-running oscillations. those subject matters also are taken care of with recognize to the recent advancements within the present version. additionally the keep an eye on of such instabilities and chaos keep an eye on are severe concerns for functions. one other fascinating and critical factor of semiconductor laser chaos during this 3rd version is chaos synchronization among lasers and the applying to optical safe communique. one of many new themes during this variation is quickly actual quantity new release utilizing chaotic semiconductor lasers for safe communique and improvement of chaos chips and their program. As different new vital issues, the hot increase of recent semiconductor laser buildings is gifted, reminiscent of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers, quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and actual random quantity iteration with software to quantum key distribution. Stabilities, instabilities, and regulate of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade lasers are vital subject matters during this box.
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Additional info for Semiconductor lasers : stability, instability and chaos
92) where Δφ = δφ(t − τ ) − δφ(t). 92). The calculation is not straightforward and, instead, it is usually obtained numerically (Henry 1986). 3 shows an example of numerical calculations for the power spectrum. With the increase Fig. 3. Intensity noise spectrum for several power levels 46 3 Semiconductor Lasers and Theory of the output power, the RIN decreases as expected. The higher frequency peaks in the spectra correspond to the relaxation oscillations. Also the relaxation oscillation frequency increases with the increase of the laser output power.
41) This is the well-known result that the laser output power linearly increases (1) with the increase of the pump r well above the threshold rth . For a pump below the laser threshold, the laser does not reach laser oscillation and it only exhibits a faint light output due to spontaneous emission, thus the laser is also under another stable condition. For the increase of the pump r over the threshold, whether the laser output power increases with the increase of the pump or not? In actual fact, there are nonlinear eﬀects, such as saturation of gains of the laser material, to limit the optical output power.
From these equations, the noises are much enhanced at the angular frequency equal to the relaxation oscillation, ω = ωR . In real lasers, it is sometimes diﬃcult to apply the linear stability analysis for a direct injection current modulation when the modulation is not so small or the eﬀect of spontaneous emissions is not negligible. In those cases, we must numerically solve the rate equations and such an analysis has been reported (Chinone et al. 4 Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) The light output from a semiconductor laser is detected by a high-speed photo receiver.