By Lucy Lethbridge
Servants: A Downstairs View of Twentieth-century Britain is the social background of the final century during the eyes of these who served. From the butler, the footman, the maid and the cook dinner of 1900 to the au pairs, cleaners and childminders who took their position seventy years later, a formerly unheard type deals a clean point of view on a dramatic century. the following, the voices of servants and family employees, principally missed through historical past, are eventually delivered to existence: their day-by-day loved ones exercises, attitudes in the direction of their employers, and to one another, throw into sharp and intimate reduction the interval of feverish social swap in which they lived. Sweeping in its scope, commonly researched and brilliantly saw, Servants is an unique and interesting portrait of twentieth-century Britain; an authoritative heritage that may switch and problem the way in which we glance at society.
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Additional resources for Servants: A Downstairs View of Twentieth-century Britain
The description of the defining of boundaries is clearly seen here. Drug use makes the group exclusive and indicates experience of life. During the first few years of drug use the informants used, almost exclusively, as a collective. Roger relates: It’s a companionship thing. When I started smoking hash there wasn’t anything else to do all day, so we just went and smoked hash, I smoked with him [his best friend] and we had a load of other mates as well, who were with us. And so we went and bought hash and all smoked it together, had great fun, talked, went round town, and things .
Adler 1985: 83) The quote above is from Adler’s very exciting ethnographic study of smugglers and dealers in California. As one of the basic motives for becoming a trafficker she mentions money and, with them, a means to provide a hedonistic lifestyle. This way of life can also be seen as one of the motives for becoming involved in the criminal subculture. Ordinary school is expected to produce conscientious individuals, who deem it possible to ‘behave themselves’ and who accept the deferred reward system in the form of lengthy periods of study, grades, further study, and at last perhaps a job and thereby money.
If they do not receive this acceptance or feel pride in their situation they find other situations in which they do, and they will want to repeat situations that are affirming. Aspelin (1999) draws on Scheff in a study on interaction in classrooms. According to Aspelin, the pupils’ psychological attendance is dependent on the type of social and psychological situation in the classroom. The more the pupils are affirmed as valuable people, the more interesting school becomes for them, and the more they want to learn.