By Giorgio Gabella (auth.)
A conspicuous component of the peripheral worried process is a part of the 'vegetative apprehensive system'; it contains the entire neurons which innerv ate the viscera, salivary and lacrimal glands, the guts and blood vessels, all different delicate muscle groups of the physique, particularly the intrinsic muscle mass of the attention and the muscular tissues of the hair. simply a part of the method belongs to the peripheral frightened process: it has additionally its personal nuclei and pathways within the significant frightened process. the excellence among visceral and somatic features is a truly outdated one in our tradition. With the improvement of neurology the inspiration of a frequent worried regulate of physique features emerged. Winslow (1732) used the time period nervi sympathici majores for these nerves, which he inspiration to hold approximately 'sympathies' after which co ordinate a number of viscera's features. His was once an anatomical holiday via, which obscured Willis' 'intercostal nerve' and Vesalius 'cranial nerve'. The suggestion was once constructed between others through John stone (1764) who arrived, through a few very exact anatomical observations, on the challenge of the fearful impact on movement and sensitivity of viscera. by means of the tip of the eighteenth century, it used to be transparent, with Bichat (1800), that what he known as 'sympa thetic worried process' (and his student Reil, many years later, 'vegeta tive frightened process ') managed visceral capabilities (fa vie organique), while somatic services (fa vie animafe) have been lower than direct regulate from the mind and spinal cord.
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Additional info for Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System
In birds the very great majority, if not all, of the fibres given off by the sympathetic vertebral ganglia are myelinated (Langley, 1904). More conclusive evidence on adrenergic myelinated axons is provided by the experiments by Kosterlitz, Thompson and Wallis (1964). The nerve supplying the medial muscle of the nictitating membrane of the cat contains mainly myelinated fibres of various diameters (Thompson, 1961) and conduction velocities (Fig. 2). After superior cervical ganglionectomy the fine myelinated fibres, with conduction velocity of 1,7-3,8 ms- 1 disappear together with the corresponding action potential.
7). Since all the counts show that the number of preganglionic fibres is in excess of that of ganglion cells, there is a clear indication of a divergence of impulses along the efferent pathway which is substantially greater than that found in parasympathetic ganglia (see below). The divergence is greater than suggested by the ratio between pre39 STRUCTURE OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and post-ganglionic units, since most ganglion neurons receive synapses from many preganglionic fibres. e. how many preganglionic fibres entering one ganglion are issued by one spinal preganglionic neuron.
E. from more than one level of the spinal cord. On the other hand, most of the 'B' neurons receive synaptic inputs from one spinal level only (monosegmental innervation). Preganglionic fibres with different conduction velocities (0,19-0,32 ms- 1 and 5·0 ms- 1 ) are connected to the two types of ganglion neurons: in the 'B' neuron system, the conduction velocity of the preganglionic axon is faster than that of the post-ganglionic fibre, whereas the relationship is reversed in the 'c' neuron system.