Download Syntactic Structures (2nd Edition) by Noam Chomsky PDF

By Noam Chomsky

David W. Lightfoot (Intro)

Noam Chomsky's first ebook on syntactic constructions is among the first severe makes an attempt at the a part of a linguist to build in the culture of clinical theory-construction a accomplished concept of language that could be understood within the comparable experience chemical, organic conception is known by way of specialists in these fields. it's not an insignificant reorganization of the information right into a new type of library catalogue, nor one other specualtive philosophy concerning the nature of guy and language, yet quite a rigorus explication of our intuitions approximately our language by way of an overt axiom process, the theorems derivable from it, specific effects that could be in comparison with new info and different intuitions, all dependent it seems that on an overt conception of the interior constitution of languages; and it could actually provide a chance for the applying of particular measures of simplicity to come to a decision choice of 1 shape over one other kind of grammar.

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Additional info for Syntactic Structures (2nd Edition)

Example text

Thus the language (10 i), consisting of all and only the strings ab, aabb, aaabbb, ... can be produced by the [I, F] grammar (I 8). (I 8) I: F: Z Z --+ab Z --+aZb < See my "Three models for the description of language" (above, p. 22, fn. 3) for proofs of this and related theorems about relative power of grammars. PHRASE STRUCTURE 31 T his grammar has the initial string Z (as (13) has the initial string Sentence) and it has two rules. It can easily be seen that each terminated derivation constructed from (18) ends in a string of the language (lOi), and that all such strings are produced in this way.

F. 210-33 (1954); R. S. 81-117 (1947) for more detailed discussion. PHRASE STRUCTURE 29 Correspondingly, (13ii) will have to be restated to include NP. 3 This is a straightforward generalization of (13). , in (16), X must be a single symbol such as T, Verb, and not a sequence such as T + N. If this condition is not met, we will not be able to recover properly the phrase structure of derived sentences from the associated diagrams of the form (15), as we did above. We can now describe more generally the form of grammar associated with the theory of linguistic structure based upon constituent analysis.

It can easily be seen that each terminated derivation constructed from (18) ends in a string of the language (lOi), and that all such strings are produced in this way. Similarly, languages of the form (lOii) can be produced by [:E, F] grammars (lOiii), however, cannot be produced by a grammar of this type, unless the rules embody contextual restrictions. 5 In § 3 we pointed out that the languages (lOi) and (lOii) correspond to subparts of English, and that therefore the finite state Markov process model is not adequate for English.

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