By William R. Leo

A therapy of the experimental suggestions and instrumentation almost always utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments in addition to in a variety of different experiments, offering invaluable effects and formulae, technical knowledge and informative information. This moment version has been revised, whereas sections on Cherenkov radiation and radiation safety were up to date and prolonged.

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**Additional info for Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments: A How-to Approach**

**Example text**

Moreover, if we assume that the energy loss is continuous, this distance must be a well defined number, the same for all identical particles with the same initial energy in the same type of material. This quantity is called the range of the particle, and depends on the type of material, the particle type and its energy. 0 31 Fig. 7. Typical range number-distance curve. / Absorber thickness ~ I\ / MEAN RANGE \ EXTRAPOLATED RANGE the ratio of transmitted to incident particles. A typical curve of this ratio versus absorber thickness, known as a range number-distance curve, is shown in Fig.

8]. 9 Range Knowing that charged particles lose their energy in matter, a natural question to ask is: How far will the particles penetrate before they lose all of their energy? Moreover, if we assume that the energy loss is continuous, this distance must be a well defined number, the same for all identical particles with the same initial energy in the same type of material. This quantity is called the range of the particle, and depends on the type of material, the particle type and its energy. 0 31 Fig.

To do this, we ask the opposite question: what is the probability for a particle not to suffer an interaction in a distance x? This is known as the survival probability and may be calculated in the following way. Let P(x): probability of not having an interaction after a distance x, w dx: probability of having an interaction between x and x + dx. 6) , where C is a constant. Requiring that P(O) = 1, we find C = 1. The probability of the particle surviving a distance x is thus exponential in distance.