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By Xande Phillips

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A number of other physical properties are linked to crystallography. For example, the minerals in clay form small, flat, platelike structures. Clay can be easily deformed because the platelike particles can slip along each other in the plane of the plates, yet remain strongly connected in the direction perpendicular to the plates. Such mechanisms can be studied by crystallographic texture measurements. In another example, iron transforms from a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure to a facecentered cubic (fcc) structure called austenite when it is heated.

Two-dimensional powder diffraction setup with flat plate detector When the scattered radiation is collected on a flat plate detector the rotational averaging leads to smooth diffraction rings around the beam axis rather than the discrete Laue spots as observed for single crystal diffraction. The angle between the beam axis and the ring is called the scattering angle and in X-ray crystallography always denoted as 2θ. (In scattering of visible light the convention is usually to call it θ). In accordance with Bragg's law, each ring corresponds to a particular reciprocal lattice vector G in the sample crystal.

Values obtained from powder XRD are typically comparable but not quite identical to those obtained from other methods such as DSC. Lattice parameters The position of a diffraction peak is independent of the atomic positions within the cell and entirely determined by the size and shape of the unit cell of the crystalline phase. Each peak represents a certain lattice plane and can therefore be characterized by a Miller index. g. cubic or hexagonal it is usually not too hard to identify the index of each peak, even for an unknown phase.

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