By Ellis R. Loew, William N. McFarland (auth.), Ron Douglas, Mustafa Djamgoz (eds.)
A query frequently requested of these folks who paintings within the likely esoteric box of fish imaginative and prescient is, why? to a couple folks the reply turns out noticeable - what percentage different visible scientists get to dive in a tropical lagoon within the identify of technological know-how after which may be able to devour their matters for dinner? even though, there are greater, or not less than scientifically extra applicable, purposes for engaged on the visible procedure of fish. First, by way of numbers, fish are by means of a long way an important of all vertebrate sessions, most likely accounting for over part (c. 22 000 species) of all well-known vertebrate species (Nelson, 1984). moreover, a lot of those are of business significance. Secondly, if one of many learn goals is to appreciate the human visible process, animals resembling fish can let us know greatly, on the grounds that in lots of methods their visible structures, and particularly their eyes, are just like our personal. this is often lucky, on the grounds that there are numerous innovations, equivalent to intracellular retinal recording, that are important to our figuring out of the visible approach, that can't be played repeatedly on primates. The chilly blooded fish, however, is a perfect topic for such reports and lots more and plenty of what we all know approximately, for instance, the basics of knowledge processing within the retina is predicated on paintings conducted on fish (e. g. Svaetichin, 1953).
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Extra resources for The Visual System of Fish
Limnol. , 26, 67l-88. R. (1968) Vision and Near Orientation of Fish (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1970, Translated by M. Raveh), US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. 175 pp. Schenck, H. (1957) On the focusing of sunlight by ocean waves. J. Opt. Soc. , 47, 653-7. Schwind, R. (1985) Sehen unten und uber Wasser, Sehen von Wasser. Naturwissenschaften, 72, 343-52. C. S. (1979) Penetration of UVB and biologically effective dose rates in natural waters. Photochem. , 29, 311-23. W.
N. (1987) Light and vision in the aquatic environment, in Sensory Biology of Aquatic Animals (eds J. R. N. N. Tavolga), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 57-82. N. and Shand, J. (1984) Action spectra for the iridophore light response in the neon tetra. Photochem. , 40, 551-3. N. (1986) Light in the sea - correlations with behaviors of fishes and invertebrates. Am. , 26, 389-401. N. R. (1983) Wave-produced changes in underwater light and their relations to vision. Env. Bioi. Fishes, 8, 173-84. N. W.
The species known to respond to polarized light are exasperatingly few in number (the goldfish, Carassius aurarus, a halfbeak, The underwater polarized light field 33 (Hemiranthus balao) and trout (Salmo trulla) represent prime examples). Within photic depths of the sea and lakes, light is linearly polarized along all lines of sight that spherically surround a fish. Therefore it seems reasonable to assume that polarization sensitivity in fishes will prove to be more widespread than current information reveals.