By Walter Müller, Markus Gangl
Ecu unification represents significant demanding situations to nationwide institutional frameworks in addition to major pressures for institutional convergence. to date, labour markets have truly obvious quite little convergence, and nationwide associations have remained hugely distinctive. by contrast history, the booklet presents an encompassing comparative research of school-to-work transitions in ecu member states. It indicates how modifications in either eu schooling and
training structures, in addition to labour marketplace associations, generated major version within the reports of kids getting into ecu labour markets in the course of the 1990s.
This publication compiles an built-in sequence of comparative empirical analyses of education-to-work transitions around the ecu via drawing at the eu Labour strength Surveys. person chapters describe the tutorial heritage of kids coming into the labour marketplace, tackle the scope of academic growth in fresh many years, and chart easy constructions of transition approaches in eu labour markets. Chapters not just research the position of schooling for winning labour market
integration, but in addition the influence of macroeconomic, structural, and institutional elements on younger people's probabilities of averting unemployment and reaching employment in occupations applicable to their schooling and coaching. From those analyses it turns into obvious that the constitution of schooling and training
systems is the major institutional issue in the back of profitable adolescence labour industry integration. on the point of intermediate talents, twin structures of teaching have retained their benefits when it comes to diminished formative years unemployment. excessive degrees of schooling nonetheless represent a key asset, for, regardless of major academic growth in fresh a long time, devaluation tendencies were restricted. As adolescence labour markets are came upon to be fairly aware of macroeconomic stipulations, although, macroeconomic
stability seems to be an both vital situation to winning formative years labour industry integration, particularly between people with low degrees of schooling.
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Extra resources for Transitions from Education to Work in Europe: The Integration of Youth into EU Labour Markets
See Tanguy 1986, 1991; Lemaire 1993; Agulhon 1997; Brauns 1999). Sweden and Finland are well known for their early development of systems of comprehensive secondary education. Indeed, charts of the organizational structure of secondary education show Sweden and Finland as being among the countries with the lowest track differentiation. However, in the decades after the Second World War, Sweden and Finland also developed vocationally oriented programmes besides the older, classical academic programmes leading to tertiary education.
Graduates both from the secondary and the tertiary level of education enter the labour market at a comparatively young age. 4 Training is increasingly organized in modules. Students select modules—to a large extent at their own discretion—and accumulate credit points from exams and assessments in those modules. The selection of modules is not strictly constrained by a standard menu for ﬁxed occupations. Rather, it reﬂects the interests of the graduates or the assumed usefulness for particular jobs, which are conceived much less in terms of speciﬁc occupational competencies and jurisdictions than in Germany.
We cannot embark on a detailed analysis of the historical conditions and socio-political constellations that affected the course taken by reform and expansion in the various countries. This would warrant a study of its own. In order to understand core differences between the countries, however, we will rely heavily on one assumption in this chapter. This is the assumption of institutional inertia or institutional path dependency. We assume that the existing educational institutions and the national traditions in the setup of educational institutions and the provision of education affect the course of educational reforms.