By Wolfgang Maichen
As many circuits and purposes now input the Gigahertz frequency diversity, exact electronic timing measurements became the most important within the layout, verification, characterization, and alertness of digital circuits.
To succeed during this box an engineer must comprehend instrumentation, size recommendations, sign integrity, jitter and timing thoughts, and facts. This ebook supplies a compact, practice-oriented evaluation on these kind of topics with emphasis on useable techniques and real-life guidelines.
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Extra info for Digital Timing Measurements: From Scopes and Probes to Timing and Jitter (Frontiers in Electronic Testing)
The latter effect is easily understood if we recall that a transmission line acts as an ohmic load Z0 to any transition, so if there is a capacitance C (or an inductance L) somewhere along the line, it forms an R-C or R-L filter with a time constant of TR −C = R × C = Z0 L L . × C , and TR − L = = R 2 × Z0 2 (18) The factor ½ for the R-C filter comes about because the line leading to and the line leading from the capacitance act in parallel, giving a Thevenin equivalent source impedance of half the line impedance (Figure 11(a)).
But alas, another complication awaits us: Capacitance and inductance are not lumped (concentrated) at one point, but rather they are distributed over the length of the transmission line. Ltot (a) Ltot = ¦ Lu Ctot Ctot = ¦ Cu length l LU LU LU LU Z0 Æ (b) CU CU CU CU length l Figure 10: (a) Lumped model of a transmission line. (b) Discrete, distributed model of an ideal, loss-less transmission line. Why is this important? As we know, the rise times (and even clock periods) of our high-speed signals are so fast that the signal has no way of traveling through the whole path during that time, and therefore there is no way it can “experience” the action of the total line capacitance and inductance.
1 ns) and send in the two signals with (a) 2 ns and (b) 100 ps rise time, respectively. 87, and the delays to (a) 345 ps, (b) 435. This is already a difference of 90 ps, definitely not negligible in a high-accuracy measurement setup. It also makes clear that if we have to characterize or calibrate this setup, we should do this with signals that have a very similar rise time to the signals we want to measure! 1 1 10 TR ,edge TR , filter Figure 9: The delay of the output signal depends mainly on the ratio between signal rise time and filter rise time (or signal time constant and filter time constant).