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By H.A. Whale

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3 where the theoretical curves are drawn assuming an omnidirectiona1 transmitting antenna and various values of the scattering parameter A. It will be remembered that it requires about a month's results to obtain a sufficient amount of data to make an adequate estimate of a and thus to obtain one point on this figure. he experimental points do not fit any of the theoretical curves very weIl it must be remembered that they were obtained at different seasons of the year and under various different ionospheric conditions.

To illustrate this, we use the Mercator projection in fig. 2 showing aseries of great circles originating in England. Those regions which are shadowed by the auroral regions are indicated by the dotted lines so that, under conditions of high auroral zone absorption, only in the regions covered by the full lines is reception by direct great circle route possible from a transmitter in England. Note that a large part of New Zealand is in the shadow region. Fig. 2 Great circles drawn on Mercator's projection.

The way in which other great circles are distorted in this projection can be seen by studying the lines of longitude (since all longitude lines are great circles). - "" Fig. 1 IdeaZized eapth with concentPic ionosphepe showing gpeat cipcZe paths. AP is the point antipodaZ to the tPansmittep at T. SPHERICAL EARTH PROPAGATION - THE IDEALIZED CASE 33 In the above we have found the idealized paths between a transmitter and a receiver. It will be found that a considerable part of the remainder of this work is devoted to a study of how far, in fact, actual conditions deviate from this ideal.

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